Abrams believes her success registering voters with the nonprofit New Georgia Project and her experience limiting conservative overreach as a Democratic leader equip her to go toe-to-toe with the GOP-dominated legislature as governor. And she hopes to bring Georgians the employment, education and health care opportunities available to working families in other, bluer states. She has been the subject of glowing profiles in The NationThe Guardian and The New York Timeswhere she is often touted as a leading light of an unabashedly progressive political movement emerging in the increasingly diverse American South.
Classical times[ edit ] Plato believed that children would never learn unless they wanted to learn. In The Republiche said, " The question concerned the educational value of pre-Christian classical thought: Education reforms did not become widespread until after organized schooling was sufficiently systematized to be 'reformed.
Modern education reforms are increasingly driven by a growing understanding of what works in education and how to go about successfully improving teaching and learning in schools. Classical education is most concerned with answering the who, what, where, and when? Unless carefully taught, group instruction naturally neglects the theoretical "why" and "which" questions that strongly concern fewer students.
Classical education in this period also did not teach local vernacular languages and cultures. Instead it taught high-status ancient languages Greek and Latin and their cultures. This produced odd social effects in which an intellectual class might be more loyal to ancient cultures and institutions than to their native vernacular languages and their actual governing authorities.
England in the 19th century[ edit ] Before there were government-funded public schools, education of the lower classes was by the charity school, pioneered in the 19th century by Protestant organizations and adapted by the Roman Catholic Church and governments. Because these schools operated on very small budgets and attempted to serve as many needy children as possible, they were designed to be inexpensive.
The basic program was to develop "grammar" schools. These taught only grammar and bookkeeping. This program permitted people to start businesses to make money, and gave them the skills to continue their education inexpensively from books.
Joseph Lancaster The ultimate development of the grammar school was by Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell who developed the monitorial system. Lancaster started as a poor Quaker in early 19th century London. Bell started the Madras School of India.
The monitorial system uses slightly more-advanced students to teach less-advanced students, achieving student-teacher ratios as small as 2, while educating more than a thousand students per adult. Lancaster promoted his system in a piece called Improvements in Education that spread widely throughout the English-speaking world.
Discipline and labor in a Lancaster school were provided by an economic system.
Scrip, a form of money meaningless outside the school, was created at a fixed exchange rate from a student's tuition. Every job of the school was bid-for by students in scrip, with the largest bid winning.
However, any student tutor could auction positions in his or her classes. Besides tutoring, students could use scrip to buy food, school supplies, books, and childish luxuries in a school store.
The adult supervisors were paid from the bids on jobs. The students were very clever at reducing their costs, and once invented, improvements were widely adopted in a school. For example, Lancaster students, motivated to save scrip, ultimately rented individual pages of textbooks from the school library, and read them in groups around music stands to reduce textbook costs.
Students commonly exchanged tutoring, and paid for items and services with receipts from "down tutoring. As a result, the older children acting as disciplinary monitors tended to become brutal task masters.
Also, the schools did not teach submission to orthodox Christian beliefs or government authorities. As a result, most English-speaking countries developed mandatory publicly paid education explicitly to keep public education in "responsible" hands.
These elites said that Lancaster schools might become dishonest, provide poor education and were not accountable to established authorities. Lancaster's supporters responded that any schoolchild could avoid cheats, given the opportunity, and that the government was not paying for the education, and thus deserved no say in their composition.
Lancaster, though motivated by charity, claimed in his pamphlets to be surprised to find that he lived well on the income of his school, even while the low costs made it available to the poorest street-children. Ironically, Lancaster lived on the charity of friends in his later life.
Child-study[ edit ] Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been called the father of the child-study movement. It has been said that Rousseau "discovered" the child as an object of study.Singapore Table of Contents. In the colonial government appointed Sir George Rendel to head a commission to review the Singapore constitution and devise a "complete political and constitutional structure designed to enable Singapore to develop as a self-contained and autonomous unit in any larger organization with which it may ultimately become associated.".
In Ministers of Reform, Robert Crunden traces the backgrounds of many of the leading achievers in the Progressive era. Although the statesmen, social workers, writers, artists, and thinkers were not bound to a common platform and were not members of any single movement, many of them shared common backgrounds and experiences that influenced Reviews: 3.
1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p.
2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s. Much strong subtle writing has been done on the intellectual history of the Progressive Era, and on the background and outlook of the Progressive ""type""—by Henry May, Richard Hofstadter, Christopher Lasch, and others.
Get this from a library! Ministers of reform: the Progressives' achievement in American civilization, [Robert Morse Crunden]. Read the full-text online edition of Ministers of Reform: The Progressives' Achievement in American Civilization, (). and I stress the psychological origin of progressive achievements in every area of cultural ferment.