This General Comment addresses in detail: Freedom of information and expression and democracy General Comment No. The Human Rights Committee has stated that: Citizens also take part in the conduct of public affairs by exerting influence through public debate and dialogue with their representatives or through their capacity to organize themselves.
But after decades of research, figuring out how many people might contract cancer because of them remains an elusive goal. More than 60 percent of U. But what about the rest? A report by the President's Cancer Panelreleased earlier this month, reignited a year-old controversy among cancer experts and environmental epidemiologists about how large a role environmental factors play in the No.
But scientists most likely will never be able to tease out the true role of environmental contaminants because environmental exposures, genetics and lifestyle seem to all intertwine. Ted Schettler, director of the Science and Environmental Health Networka nonprofit group that advocates use of science in setting environmental policy.
From the womb to old age, people around the world are exposed to countless carcinogens in their food, air, water and consumer goods. The highest exposures occur in an occupational setting, but there are environmental exposures as well.
For example, benzenea known cause of human leukemia, is a common pollutant in vehicle exhaust.
Radon, a natural radioactive gas found in many homes, raises the risk of lung cancer. Arseniclinked to skin, liver, bladder and lung cancer, contaminates some drinking water supplies. Other known human carcinogens include asbestos, hexavalent chromium, aflatoxins and vinyl chloride. Sinceagencies and institutes have cited the same estimate when regulating carcinogens in the workplace, air, water and consumer products.
Roughly four percent of cancer deaths — or 20, deaths per year - may be attributable to occupational exposures, and two percent — or 10, deaths per year — to environmental exposures. Michael Thunvice president emeritus of epidemiology and surveillance research for the American Cancer Society.
But many environmental epidemiologists say quibbling over the numbers becomes a diversionary tactic. If there are things we can move on, let's work on those.
Every year, about 1. Experts agree that most cancers are caused by lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet and alcohol. Smoking alone accounts for at least 30 percent of all U. A report by two scientists, Sir Richard Doll and Sir Richard Peto, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, estimated that two percent of cancer deaths were attributable to exposures to pollutants in the environment and four percent to exposures in occupational settings.
Inthose percentages amounted to about 30, U. The report only considered deaths, not cancer cases.
About half of those diagnosed with cancer die. Also, the study only included Caucasians under the age of 65, although many cancers increase with age and many minority groups are more highly exposed to environmental contaminants.
The old two percent estimate for environmentally induced cancers is still commonly used — despite advances in modern cancer biology.
New areas of cancer research are focusing on the potential for pollutants to interact with one another and with genetic factors. Carcinogens can act by damaging DNA, disrupting hormonesinflaming tissues, or switching genes on or off.
Also, exposure to hormonally active agents during critical periods of human development — particularly in the womb or during childhood — may trigger cancer later in life.
For example, the risk of breast cancer could be influenced by exposures during puberty.History has proven that such form of expression lead to greater consequences, and so censorship can act as a stopgap.
In conclusion, I reaffirm my statement that limiting people's exposure to some kind of information or forms of an expression is good, if used wisely.
in the arts and entertainment In the late s, state prosecutors brought a criminal obscenity charge against the owner of a record store for selling an album by the rap group, 2 Live Crew. More information about asbestos is available on OSHA’s Asbestos page, which has links to information about asbestos in the workplace, including what OSHA standards apply, the hazards of asbestos, evaluating asbestos exposure, and controls used to protect workers.
OSHA’s national office can . Should society limit people’s exposure to some kinds of information or forms of expression? Can a group of people function effectively without someone being in charge?
Is it important to question the ideas and decisions of people in positions of authority? Should society limit people's exposure to some kinds of information or forms of expression?
Can a group of people function effectively without someone being in charge? Is it important to question the ideas and decisions of people in positions of authority? Aug 15, · Should society limit people’s exposure to some kind of information or forms of expression?
Throughout time mankind has been striving to get information from circumstance to make life convenient and efficient.