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Martin Luther King, Jr. Against incredible odds--and often at great risk--the thousands of activists in the modern freedom struggle won victories that touched their own lives as well as those of their neighbors and future generations.
Here are highlights about some of the groups and individuals involved in the unfolding human drama: Southern resistance Resistance to racial equality in the Deep South came not only from extremist groups like the Ku Klux Klan and white "citizens' councils.
Hurst, a Mississippi state representative, stalked and killed a black farmer for attending voter registration classes.
Laurie Pritchett, Albany, Georgia's police chief, thwarted student efforts to integrate public places in the city. Birmingham's public safety commissioner Eugene T.
Police all across the South arrested civil rights activists on trumped-up charges. All-white juries in several states acquitted known killers of local African Americans.
Black churches The leadership role of black churches in the movement was a natural extension of their structure and function. They offered members an opportunity to exercise roles denied them in society.
Throughout history, the black church served not only as a place of worship but also as a community "bulletin board," a credit union, a "people's court" to solve disputes, a support group, and a center of political activism.
These and other functions enhanced the importance of the minister. The most prominent clergyman in the civil rights movement was Martin Luther King, Jr. Time magazine's "Man of the Year" was a man of the people. He joined as well as led protest demonstrations, and as comedian Dick Gregory put it, "he gave as many fingerprints as autographs.
His tireless personal commitment to and strong leadership role in the black freedom struggle won him worldwide acclaim and the Nobel Peace Prize. Other notable minister-activists included Ralph Abernathy, King's closest associate; Bernard Lee, veteran demonstrator and frequent travel companion of King; Fred Shuttlesworth, who defied Bull Connor and who created a safe path for a colleague through a white mob in Montgomery by commanding "Out of the way!
Vivian, who debated Sheriff Clark on his conduct and the Constitution. Students Students and seminarians in both the South and the North played key roles in every phase of the civil rights movement--from bus boycotts to sit-ins to freedom rides to social movements.
The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, the single-minded activist who "kept on" despite many beatings and harassments; Jim Lawson, the revered "guru" of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in the most rural--and most dangerous--part of the South; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer and facilitator.
Institutional frameworks Church and student-led movements developed their own organizational and sustaining structures.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference the SCLCfounded incoordinated and raised funds, mostly from northern sources, for local protests and for the training of black leaders.
SNCC's role was to develop and link sit-in campaigns and to help organize freedom rides, voter registration drives, and other protest activities.
The NAACP and its Director, Roy Wilkins, provided legal counsel for jailed demonstrators, helped raise bail, and continued to test segregation and discrimination in the courts as it had been doing for half a century.
Labor was represented by A. Philip Randolphvice-president of the American Federation of Labor, and his chief assistant and organizer, Bayard Rustin.
Civil Rights Leaders Dr. President John Kennedy supported enforcement of desegregation in schools and public facilities. Attorney General Robert Kennedy brought more than 50 lawsuits in four states to secure black Americans' right to vote.
President Lyndon Johnson was personally committed to achieving civil rights goals. Congress passed and President Johnson signed the century's two most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation-- the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of The role of the Black church in the Civil Rights Movement By Vicki Phipps The role of the church in every African American community played a major role in the Civil Rights Movement, but the role of the church began long before the revered Reverend, Martin Luther King, Jr.
was born. The significant gains of the civil rights movement were won by people, not processes. Black churches The leadership role of black churches in the movement was a natural extension of their structure and function.
They offered members an opportunity to exercise roles denied them in society. Institutional frameworks Church and student-led. God in America. HOME. WATCH ONLINE the political and religious landscape of America: the civil rights movement. and role of the black church in the post-civil rights era has been the.
Williams explains how the ideology of the black church roused disparate individuals into a community and how the church established a base for many diverse participants in the civil rights movement. He shows how church life and ecumenical education helped to sustain the protest of people with few resources and little permanent power.
Nearly all of the names we associate as heroic leaders in the Civil Rights Movement were members of black churches: Rosa Parks, Andrew Young, Fannie Lou Hamer, John Lewis, Septima Clark, Jessie Jackson, and so many more. Black Americans had to ‘fight’ for their right to equality.
In the s a Baptist preacher named Martin Luther King became the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. He believed that peaceful protest was the way forward. In the s, school segregation was widely accepted throughout the United.